A particular attitude towards or way of regarding something; a point of view.
Perspective in photography can be defined as the sense of depth or spatial relationships between objects in the photo, along with their dimensions with respect to the viewpoint (camera lens or the viewer). It also relates to the position of the human eye in relation to the objects in an image. The farther away an object is from the human eye, the smaller it becomes.
This is one of the tricky areas of photography which if a photographer is not consciously aware of, can produce unwanted “distortions” or “flat” uninteresting images.
Linear Perspective, Rectilinear and Vanishing poiint
The human eye judges distance by the way elements within a scene diminish in size, and the angle at which lines and planes converge. This is called linear perspective. For example railway tracks that seem to merge in the distance. The space between the tracks (side to side) is fixed, of course, but it seems to get smaller the closer the tracks get to the horizon.
The location of the base of an object in a photo serves to give the viewer an idea of how far away from the camera the object is. The farther up in the horizontal plane of a photo the object is located, the farther away it seems; objects lower in the horizontal plane appear closer.
The appearance of objects at long distances is altered by the effects of atmospheric conditions between the camera and the object being photographed. Objects become less distinct as more atmosphere is placed between them and the camera; dust, smoke, water, and a variety of other factors conspire to diminish contrast in an image. Ironically, this haze serves to create depth, particularly in landscape photography.
If an image features multiple objects placed on the same visual plane, the objects closer to the camera will overlap and partially hide the objects that are farther away. From this, the viewer can more easily ascertain the relative distance of one object from another.
Diminishing Size Perspective
Our brain is very complex but gets fooled easily. We have a notion that when an object becomes more distant, it appears smaller than the one which is closer to the viewer. This effect is best demonstrated through repetition of objects such as rows of trees. The first tree will be closest to your camera and, thus, will appear larger, with each subsequent tree in the row appearing smaller.
Forced perspective relies on the purposeful, strategic placement of a subject/object in such a manner that it appears farther, closer, larger, or smaller than it is in reality.
Change Your Viewpoint
Perhaps the most convenient way to alter perspective is to simply move; change your viewpoint. Get down low, go up high, step to the right or to the left; any viewpoint other than eye level (the most commonly used viewpoint) can make a significant difference in perspective.
Perspective as a compositional tool will have a powerful impact on the images you produce once you gotten a hang of how and when to use different types of perspective. The best part is that these techniques are free. It doesn’t matter what kind of camera you are using; absolutely anyone can improve their photography this way.